At the same time, however, there is much that remains to be done. Despite the increasing number of psychotropic drugs that are marketed and available for use (see 1 ), the mechanisms of action are predominantly the same as the original prototypes developed in the 1950s. There have been few, if any, innovative new compounds developed despite an array of theoretically viable biologic targets. Although different modes of brain stimulation beyond ECT have been invented (for example, VNS, R-TMS, DBS, DCS), their effectiveness has yet to be established, and their availability is limited. In addition, the psychosocial therapies that have been proven effective are not widely available and inconsistently reimbursed. Moreover, our health care financing system and lack of cohesion in public and private health care systems have not met the clinical need and left many patients partially or completely untreated.