We don’t often think about the work we do as "cost-effective" or "productivity enhancing." But it’s true: mentally ill employees are expensive to businesses. Anxiety, depression, and substance abuse are the big three. For example, one recent study found that the workplace cost of anxiety was $42.3 billion in 1990 in the U.S., or $1,542 per sufferer, according to Greenberg et al. in the study, "The Economic Burden of Anxiety Disorders in the 1990s," which appeared in the July 1999 Journal of Clinical Psychiatry. About 88 percent of those workplace costs were due to lost productivity when the anxious employee was at work. Greater awareness, recognition, and appropriate early intervention become "cost savers" in this setting.