As I look back on my decades in medical education, I recall medical school quotas for women, African Americans, and Jews. After correcting those, a historical relic was that to do psychotherapy in the United States, one had to be a licensed physician. There were a few exceptions, such as distinguished products of European psychoanalytic education, which credentialed nonphysicians. The only other exceptions were psychologists who conducted testing and social workers who were employed by clinics and a handful of enterprising physicians for what was called casework. It was not uncommon that those professionals performed psychotherapy under the supervision of the physician.