First, we know about the psychological and social consequences of war and trauma. War places combatants, witnesses, and survivors at risk for various mental disturbances: posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, stress-related psychosis, anxiety, neuropsychiatric consequences of exposure to neurotoxic agents, exacerbation of preexisting psychiatric illness, and so forth. Families of combatants and other survivors must deal with grief and bereavement, as well as societal dislocation and distress. War increases the likelihood of enemy retaliation, which in turn exacerbates public anxiety and dysphoria. If retaliatory acts occur, there will be predictable increases in PTSD and depression. War diverts government spending to the military and enlarges the budget deficit. Higher military budgets often result in reductions in domestic social programs, such as mental health services, unemployment insurance, public assistance, Medicaid, and Social Security supports.