There is no "either-or" for modern psychiatry. Both nature and nurture are diagnostically and therapeutically relevant. In the 1999 book The Feeling of What Happens: Body and Emotion in the Making of Consciousness, Antonio Damasio hypothesizes a process in which "the biological machinery for emotions is largely preset, the inducers are not part of the machinery, they are external to it. . . . In all probability development and culture superimpose the following influences on the preset devices: first, they shape what constitutes an adequate inducer of a given emotion; second, they shape some aspects of the expression of emotion, and third, they shape the cognition and behavior which follows the deployment of an emotion."