The researchers used magnetic resonance imaging to scan the brains of 39 adolescents with schizophrenia, both at baseline, that is, when they were around 14 or 15 years of age, and then during one or more follow-up periods, which were spaced approximately two years apart. Eighteen of the 39 subjects received two scans, 14 received three scans, three received four scans, and four received five scans. Each time the youngsters were scanned, they were also assessed clinically and neuropsychologically. Sporn and her colleagues also selected as control subjects 43 age- and gender-matched youngsters from a larger pool of psychologically healthy subjects participating in a study of normal brain development at NIMH. MRI scans were performed on the brains of these control subjects around the same times as they were performed on the subjects with schizophrenia.