For some time now, psychiatric scientists have been making forays into the
nether world of bereavement, and their efforts seem to be leading to some
clarification of what grief for a loved one is and what it is not.
Normal grief for a loved one, for example, does not seem to be the same as
complicated or traumatic grief. The latter is characterized by persistent
difficulty in accepting the death, recurrent pangs of intense grief,
preoccupation with thoughts and images of the deceased, and avoidance of
reminders of the loss (Psychiatric News, July 6, 2005; April 6).
Also, the depression stemming from complicated grief does not seem to be
the same as major depression.
On the other hand, depression stemming from normal grief seems to be very
closely related to major depression, two psychiatrists now conclude. Sidney
Zisook, M.D., a professor of psychiatry at the University of California at San
Diego, and Kenneth Kendler, M.D., a professor of psychiatry and human genetics
at Virginia Commonwealth University, presented data backing their theory in
the June Psychological Medicine.
Zisook and Kendler searched all English-language reports in Medline up to
November 2006 to identify published data about key characteristics that define
bereavement depression and standard major depression. They then compared
characteristics for both types of depression.
Several of their results indicated that bereavement depression might be a
separate disorder from major depression. For example, although women are more
vulnerable to major depression, men may be equally as vulnerable to
Most of their analysis, however, suggested that bereavement depression is
closely related to major depression. For instance, bereavement depression,
like major depression, is more common in younger adults than in older ones,
more likely to occur in individuals with a personal or family history of major
depression, more likely to occur in persons in poor health than in good
health, and more likely to occur in those with little social support.
Furthermore, both bereavement depression and major depression are
accompanied by heightened adrenocortical activity, impaired immune responses,
and sleep disturbances. And bereavement depression has clinical
characteristics similar to those of major depression—impaired
psychosocial function, comorbidity with a number of anxiety disorders, and
symptoms of worthlessness and suicidality.
"Overall, the prevailing evidence more strongly supports similarities
than differences between bereavement-related depression and standard major
depression," Zisook and Kendler concluded.
These findings have important clinical implications, Zisook and Kendler
believe. For example, DSM-IV-TR guidelines for diagnosing depression
indicate that bereavement depression can only be diagnosed as major depression
if it exceeds two months or if specific symptoms, such as suicidal ideation,
morbid preoccupation with worthlessness, or psychomotor retardation, are
present. Yet if bereavement depression is the same as major depression these
guidelines may be invalid.
On the other hand, if depression following the death of a loved one should
be largely excluded from the definition of major depression, then should
depression following other types of losses, say a divorce or bankruptcy, also
be excluded from it? Currently, "DSM-IV-TR singles out
bereavement as the only stressful life event that excludes the diagnosis of
major depressive episode when all other features are present," Zisook
and Kendler noted.
"The ideal study to test the validity of the bereavement
exclusion," they pointed out, "would compare individuals with
depressive syndromes beginning within two months of the loss of a loved
one...[to individuals with] major depressive episodes of similar duration and
symptom profile whose onset is unrelated to the death of a loved one."
But "Unfortunately, we found no such studies in the literature,"
What about treatment? "The ultimate decision of when, whether, and
how to treat the depression," Zisook told Psychiatric News,"
should be made on the basis of considerations generally used for other,
nonbereavement-related depressions, such as past history of depression and
response to treatment, severity and chronicity of the episode, comorbidity,
anxiety level, suicidal ideation, effects on functioning, supports, et cetera.
The decision should not be based on time since the death of a loved
Zisook and Kendler's review was not supported by outside funding.
An abstract of "Is Bereavement-Related Depression Different
Than Non-Bereavement-Related Depression?" is posted at<http://journals.cambridge.org/action/displayAbstract?fromPage=online&aid=1018312>.▪