In 2008, Madelyn Gould, Ph.D., M.P.H., a professor of clinical psychiatry at Columbia University College of Physicians and
Surgeons, and colleagues presented, and later published, results of a study of sudden death and the use of stimulant medications
in youth. The study, a matched case-control design, compared mortality data from 1985-1996 state vital statistics to identify
564 cases of sudden death occurring at ages 7 through 19 with a matched group of 564 young people who died as passengers in
motor vehicle traffic accidents. Ten of the sudden unexplained deaths were of youth taking stimulants, specifically methylphenidate;
in contrast, use of stimulants was found in only two subjects in the motor vehicle accident comparison group, with only one
involving methylphenidate use, leading Gould and colleagues to conclude that their work lent support to an association between
the use of stimulants and sudden unexplained death among children and adolescents.