Injury and illness, including cuts, punctures, lacerations, and abrasions, fatigue, dehydration, heat exhaustion, weight loss,
and orthopedic or back problems occurred in most of the 9/11 dogs and affected several organ systems, but all were minor.
Only one dog required sutures, for a laceration of a rear foot, the only surgical procedure reported. By the end of the first
year after their deployment, there was no evidence that the cohort developed adverse effects related to their work, either
medical or behavioral.