—¢ A 28-year-old single female who works as a manager for a city government has struggled with an unstable self-image, chronic
feelings of emptiness, and difficulties maintaining close romantic relationships for all of her adult life. However, she has
a few close female friends and is considered a good worker. Extremely self-critical, she attempts to boost her self-esteem
by seeking the approval of others. She has been told that she is "needy and often seems desperate," which leads to some difficulties
in maintaining romantic and other close relationships, although she often does not understand what she does that makes this
impression. She experiences fluctuating strong emotions, such as panic, fear, depression, and anger in response to interpersonal
disappointments. She has made several suicidal gestures by cutting herself in the past couple of years when stressed by the
ending of a relationship.