Stein outlined the dramatic toll of TBI, explaining that the more than 1.5 million annual cases of TBI in the United States
dwarf the incidence of breast cancer (176,300 cases), HIV/AIDS (43,681 cases), and multiple sclerosis (10,400 cases). "Direct
medical costs and indirect costs such as lost productivity from TBI totaled an estimated $60 billion in the U.S. in 2004,"
he said. He cited U.S. Army Institute of Surgical Research statistics showing that 28 percent of military personnel with injuries
from hostilities in Iraq and Afghanistan who were evacuated to Walter Reed Army Medical Center had traumatic brain injuries.